Beyond Greed and Fear | Hersh Shefrin

Summary of: Beyond Greed and Fear: Understanding Behavioral Finance and the Psychology of Investing
By: Hersh Shefrin


In ‘Beyond Greed and Fear,’ Hersh Shefrin challenges conventional wisdom about financial markets’ efficiency and delves into behavioral finance and the psychology of investing. This summary illuminates how emotions such as hope, fear, and greed lead to flawed decision-making. Throughout the book, you’ll learn about three major themes in behavioral finance: heuristic-driven biases, frame dependence, and inefficient markets. The book also provides real-world examples of how these ideas manifest in retirement planning and corporate management, as well as the strategies of successful investors and the failures of inexperienced ones.

The Fallacy of Efficient Financial Markets

Financial theory teaches us that efficient markets price investments to their true value, given the abundance of information available and willing buyers and sellers. However, the school of behavioral finance disputes this theory, which studies the intersection of investment and psychology. Behavioral finance reveals that investors act on emotions, leading to flawed logic and unrealistic expectations. The imperfection of human perception often controls decision-making, and many investors end up making bad choices. This is not to say that studying behavioral finance will make you rich, but it will help you recognize money-losing, emotionally-laden patterns and avoid them. Lastly, the most profitable strategy for individual investors is to avoid trading stocks and stick with indexed mutual funds.

The Psychology of Investing

The book challenges the widely-held belief that greed and fear motivate investors and instead argues that fear and hope are the primary emotions driving investment decisions. To gain a deeper understanding of behavioral finance, the book discusses three themes – heuristic-driven bias, frame dependence, and inefficient markets. Heuristic-driven bias refers to the rules of thumb investors use to make decisions, which are often based on personal views and experiences. Frame dependence is the way in which investors frame a problem and make decisions based on various mental and emotional factors. Inefficient markets arise due to investors’ imperfect decision-making, which contradicts the theory of efficient markets that claim investments are priced to their true value. The book provides examples to illustrate each theme and shows how these factors contribute to complex, illogical emotional factors that motivate investors.

Pitfalls of investors

The pitfall of shortsightedness, overconfidence, lack of self-control, and denial in investors often leads to poor decisions and lackluster returns. These principles apply not just to retirement planning but also to individual investment choices. The tendency to search for confirming evidence and ignore disconfirming evidence can have severe consequences.


Holding onto losing investments in the hope that they will eventually bounce back is a common mistake made by pros and novices alike. This behavior, known as get-evenitis, can be particularly damaging for individual investors. Successful investors know how to cut their losses quickly, whereas those who struggle to let go of their losing investments find it hard to face their poor decisions and may become prone to hubris and overconfidence. Nick Leeson, former manager of a Barings Bank subsidiary, made rogue trades to hide his losses but ultimately caused the collapse of a 232-year-old company due to his inability to accept losses. However, it’s not just rogue traders who fall prey to get-evenitis. Corporate executives and individuals like former Bear, Stearns & Co. chairman Cy Lewis and community college instructor Melvin Klahr have also found themselves unable to let go of losing investments. The bandwagon effect, or the belief that the crowd must know something, and misery loves company, can exacerbate get-evenitis, especially for individual investors. The takeaway from this phenomenon is that cutting losses quickly is crucial for long-term success in investing.

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