Empire | Niall Ferguson

Summary of: Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World
By: Niall Ferguson

Introduction

Prepare to dive deep into the fascinating origin, growth, and unraveling of the British Empire in ‘Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World’ by Niall Ferguson. Explore the crucial role of piracy and privateering in the genesis of the empire, and how consumerism drove its expansion across the globe. Understand how enterprising individuals, commercial desires, and wars forged the empire’s vast territories, and how migration and the slave trade sowed its seeds. Finally, witness the decline of the empire, following massive wars and mounting costs that ultimately challenged both the human and financial orders. This summary delivers a compelling chronicle of how the British Empire shaped world history and laid the foundation for our contemporary existence.

Buccaneers Shape British Empire

England was initially late to imperialism, but they turned fortune in their favor by adopting piracy as an official policy. Buccaneers like Henry Morgan and Christopher Newport attacked Spanish colonies and ships, accumulating wealth and laying the groundwork for future British colonies. Profitable ventures like sugar cane farming in Jamaica soon reinforced England’s presence in the Americas.

During the sixteenth century, while European powerhouses like Spain and Portugal were already establishing their empires in the Americas, England had no such presence. Instead of colonizing, England chose to disrupt the Spanish Empire by focusing on seizing the hard-earned wealth that Spain had accumulated from conquering these distant lands.

And thus, the British Empire found its early footing through partnering with buccaneers. England’s concern over Spain’s rapid expansion and the spread of Catholicism prompted them to find a clever method to counteract: unleashing private naval warfare, or privateering, as it was officially known. England’s initial attempts to explore the New World proved fruitless, so they resorted to stealing from the already rich Spanish colonies.

Queen Elizabeth recognized the potential of this strategy and made piracy an official policy. British rogues like Henry Morgan and Christopher Newport were sanctioned by the crown, becoming agents who sought to clash with and loot Spanish settlements and vessels.

The policy paid off. Advancements in artillery, navigation, and maneuverability allowed English ships to outpace their Spanish counterparts, reaping considerable rewards. In 1599, Christopher Newport joined a daring gold heist from a Spanish colony in Tabasco, Mexico, losing an arm but securing incredible wealth.

Henry Morgan’s expeditions had an even more significant impact, not only accumulating riches but also laying the groundwork for some of the first British colonies. Organizing a series of raids in 1668 on modern-day Cuba, Panama, and Venezuela, Morgan demonstrated his cunning with limited resources and skillfully pocketed his profits. Unlike other pirates, Morgan was a strategic investor, purchasing land in Jamaica with his ill-gotten gains.

As Jamaica’s fertile land proved suitable for growing sugar cane, England seized the opportunity to expand its influence and transform the island into an official colony. Fittingly, Henry Morgan was appointed its governor, having played a central role in founding one of the first territories that would ultimately define the British Empire.

Sweet Commerce and Imperial Growth

English cravings for sugar and imported goods like tea, coffee, and tobacco fueled their empire’s expansion in the eighteenth century. The East India Company, initially in direct competition with its Dutch counterpart, played a significant role in fulfilling consumer demand, eventually leading to the merging of the two companies. Commerce and consumerism were the driving forces behind imperial growth, as the British Empire became deeply entrenched in India, Southeast Asia, Africa, and the West Indies.

The insatiable English appetite for sugar, an affordable treat for both aristocrats and commoners, set the stage for the eighteenth-century craze for imported goods. Tea, coffee, tobacco, cotton, ginger, chocolate, and rice became mainstays of the English diet, with tea consumption alone skyrocketing from under 800,000 lbs. in 1740 to over 2.5 million lbs. a mere decade later. The demand for these goods paved the way for remarkable global impact, rooted in the power of commerce and consumerism.

To satisfy consumer demands, the East India Company took center stage. However, the English East India Company wasn’t the only player in this game; its counterpart, the Dutch East India Company, posed significant competition. The two companies, founded just two years apart in the early seventeenth century, engaged in such intense rivalry that three wars erupted between England and the Dutch Republic from 1652 to 1674. The Dutch largely emerged victorious in these conflicts, thanks to their advanced economy and early adoption of modern finance principles.

These defeats resulted in a coup in England in 1688, dethroning King James II and welcoming Dutch influence. William of Orange, the Dutch national leader, ascended to the English throne, bringing with him a financial revolution that would merge the competing East India companies. In 1694, inspired by the Bank of Amsterdam, the Bank of England was born. With the establishment of government bonds, credit and debt management, and a revitalized navy, the Dutch financial system empowered England to expand its empire on a grand scale.

Using the newly merged East India Company’s impressive profits and influence as a springboard, England ingrained itself in India, Southeast Asia, Africa, the West Indies, and beyond. The ever-growing Empire thrived on the irresistible allure of commerce and consumerism – driven by the English love for sugar and other enticing imports.

Empire Battles and Conquests

The East India Company’s ever-expanding trade empire led to bureaucracy, side businesses, and competition with France. After the unification of Scotland and England to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the new nation’s superior naval power became evident. The Seven Years’ War could be considered the first world war, as it involved the major European powers fighting for control over North America, the Caribbean, and India. Eventually, Britain emerged victorious, largely due to its solid financial resources, resulting in India firmly in the hands of Great Britain.

The East India Company’s foray into lands far and wide invariably came with a generous dose of bureaucracy. Settlements were sprung, fortifications raised, and company men placed in strategic locations to ensure a steady flow of trade and profit. However, the operation wasn’t flawless. Far from England’s watchful gazes, opportunistic company men, like Thomas Pitt, began engaging in side businesses to supplement their income. Initially disapproved by the company, these side hustles soon garnered a thumbs up from the brass, as they created new connections and boosted overall business.

Predictably, France – England’s arch-rival – didn’t twiddle its thumb as its competition flourished. In 1664, France established its own East India Company, initiating heated tensions between the two nations. Enter 1707, and the parliaments of Scotland and England joined forces, giving rise to the United Kingdom of Great Britain. With this merger, the English empire grew in size and stature.

The War of Spanish Succession in 1713 shook Spain’s naval power, effectively cementing Britain’s role as the reigning European naval force. Nevertheless, a more massive conflict loomed: The Seven Years’ War. Commencing in 1756, the colossal fight featured prominent European powers such as Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Spain, all grappling for supremacy. Amid the chaos, the most critical question begged an answer – would France or Britain rule the world?

Territorial disputes in North America, the Caribbean, and India fueled much of the conflict. When the dust settled, Britain stood tall, claiming vast swathes of land from France, including Canada, Florida, Dominica, Grenada, Tobago, St. Vincent, and the strategic region of Bengal in India. Britain’s triumph was primarily attributed to its financial prowess, well-equipped for a protracted war, unlike France. Though tensions and territorial swaps continued between the two titans, the Seven Years’ War signaled India’s submission to Great Britain’s dominance.

Empire Forged by Migration

India was an attractive destination for intrepid Britons seeking fortune and adventure, leading to a massive migration in the seventeenth century that laid the foundation of the British Empire. A broad spectrum of people journeyed for various reasons, such as indentured servitude offering the hope of eventual freedom, or those forcibly taken as slaves during the international slave trade. As the movement for abolition gained traction in Britain, the slave trade was eventually banned in the British Empire in 1808. However, with the advent of the Victorian era, non-Christian subjects found themselves under pressure to adopt the Christian faith, leading to unforeseen consequences.

The allure of India’s riches and exotic experiences drew numerous Britons to its shores in hopes of attaining wealth and worldly success. This migration marked a historical moment that served as the basis of the sprawling British Empire. In the seventeenth century alone, around 700,000 adventurous souls from the British Isles ventured forth to foreign lands.

Some people willingly took the risk to cross the Atlantic as indentured servants, accepting a five-year term of servitude with the promise of freedom thereafter. Despite surviving the treacherous voyage, they still faced the perils of new diseases and cruel overseers.

Concurrently, the international slave trade thrived on forced labor and human suffering. By 1750, British ships had transported around 800,000 enslaved Africans to the Caribbean, while a staggering 3.5 million people were dispatched to North America by 1807.

Towards the late eighteenth century, abolitionist groups such as Evangelical Protestants and Quakers began to alter the course of history. Through their political power, the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade influenced the 1808 ban on slave trading within the British Empire.

Entering the Victorian era in 1837, religious groups gained prominence, promoting respect for human rights while simultaneously pressuring non-Christians to embrace Christianity— a decision that would later have dire consequences.

Balancing Empire & Control

The transportation of around 150,000 convicts to Australia between 1787 and 1853 eventually led to the emergence of a thriving community in the once-barren land. The British government, having learned from the loss of their North American colonies, chose to grant more autonomy to other territories, such as Australia, while maintaining oversight. This approach allowed for a more stable governing model, and despite conflicts with indigenous populations, the colonizers saw some form of restraint in their power.

Between 1787 and 1853, Australia became a destination for approximately 150,000 individuals convicted of various crimes like forgery and perjury. Instead of serving their sentences in regular prisons, they were sent on eight-month-long boat trips to the distant land, where they would toil away in hard labor. Early on, the treacherous voyage led people to call these boats “hell ships,” but things changed as time went on.

After experiencing initial hardships, the convicts managed to establish a flourishing community, transforming Australia from a barren wasteland into a thriving boomtown. Word of this transformation traveled across the seas, reaching London and leading some to feel envy towards those who were being shipped off to the new land.

Interestingly, these prisoners created a more stable community than the pilgrims who had journeyed to America. As the British Empire expanded, it struggled with maintaining oversight and control over its distant territories. The colonization of Australia took place as the colonies in America were declaring their independence, and the British government had learned a bitter lesson from its experience with the North American colonies.

Conflict had arisen in North America due to a lack of autonomy and resentment towards imposed laws and taxes by a faraway government. After recognizing the United States’ independence, Britain hoped to maintain a trade partnership by offering what it had denied America: self-government. This policy was extended to territories like Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

Despite Australia’s progress, it endured its own struggles, including the ongoing battle between colonizers and indigenous populations such as the Aborigines. This strife mirrored the plight of Native Americans in the United States. However, the British government granted Australia self-government but retained oversight, a decision that led to the formation of Aboriginal Protectorates in New South Wales and Western Australia. Although violence continued, their interference helped to provide a necessary restraint on the colonizers’ power, an element absent in the treatment of Native Americans in the United States.

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