Epidemics and Society | Frank M. Snowden III

Summary of: Epidemics and Society: From the Black Death to the Present (Open Yale Courses)
By: Frank M. Snowden III

Introduction

Embark on a captivating journey through the history of epidemics with Frank M. Snowden’s ‘Epidemics and Society: From the Black Death to the Present (Open Yale Courses)’. Explore how epidemic diseases like the Black Death, smallpox, cholera, and modern-day killers like HIV/AIDS, Ebola and COVID-19 have shaped human history as forceful drivers of social change. In this book, Snowden brings to light the profound impact of these pandemics on culture, society, and the course of human events. Set to engage and inform readers, this book will delve into the evolution of public health practices, critical medical advancements, and the societal effects of diseases that have impacted communities worldwide.

Epidemics and History

In “Epidemics and Society,” Frank M. Snowden examines the impact of epidemic diseases on human history and society. Snowden argues that diseases like COVID-19, Ebola, and HIV/AIDS shape the course of history as profoundly as wars and economic catastrophes. He notes that the emergence of new diseases has not decreased, citing 335 new diseases from 1960 to 2004 alone. Snowden looks at the fear, religious fanaticism, artistic expression, and blame-casting that epidemics often inspire. He also highlights the unpreparedness of the world for COVID-19, despite the recent epidemics, and warns that the West faces its greatest ever risk from infectious diseases. Snowden’s book offers a sobering but brilliant perspective on the human cost of pandemics and how they drive social change.

The Worst Catastrophe: Plague Outbreaks Through History

Snowden’s book outlines the three major surges of the plague, starting from its origins in Africa in 541 AD to the present-day threat it still poses. The disease represents the worst imaginable catastrophe, leading to the enactment of coercive measures to contain its spread. From Europe’s institutionalized public health policies to the unprecedented uses of state authority to regulate everyday life, the severity of outbreaks ensured plague served as the standard for judging other epidemics. Snowden’s work is an enlightening account of how the pandemic shaped our understanding of public health and the measures aimed at mitigating its impact.

Smallpox: The Demon of Europe

Discover how smallpox was responsible for 10% of all deaths in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries and how Dr. Edward Jenner’s experiments confirmed cowpox could provide immunity to smallpox. Finally, learn how the worldwide vaccination campaign by the medical community led to the eradication of smallpox, earning it the title of the most remarkable achievement of medical science. According to Snowden, this massive international effort saved millions of people from the disease once called the demon of Europe.

Epidemics in Warfare

In his book, Edward Snowden vividly depicts the impact of epidemics on warfare, citing examples from history such as Napoleon’s failed attempts to conquer Haiti and Russia. In both cases, diseases like yellow fever, dysentery, and typhus decimated large portions of the invading armies, leading to their eventual defeat. Snowden’s account highlights the devastating effects that epidemics can have on military campaigns, underscoring the importance of taking measures to prevent and contain such outbreaks in times of war.

Medical Revolutionaries

Snowden’s book details the impact of pioneering French medical minds from 1794 to 1848. This included the inventions of the stethoscope and pasteurization, as well as germ theory and antiseptic practices. The book also celebrates medical heroes such as Louis Pasteur and Joseph Lister, who revolutionized the field of medicine and saved countless lives. Nobel Laureate Joshua Lederberg’s argument that humans’ defense against microbes is their wits is reinforced by these pioneers’ tales of collaboration, discovery, and innovation. Snowden’s work is a stirring tribute to medical science and its impact on society.

The Lingering Cholera Pandemic

The seventh cholera pandemic started in 1961 and remains ongoing in Africa, Asia, and South America. It spreads through oral-fecal transmission in areas with contaminated drinking water, poverty, malnutrition, and crowded housing, leading to 143,000 deaths annually.

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