The Seven Sins of Memory | Daniel L. Schacter

Summary of: The Seven Sins of Memory: How the Mind Forgets and Remembers
By: Daniel L. Schacter

Introduction

Discover the fascinating intricacies of the human memory in Daniel L. Schacter’s ‘The Seven Sins of Memory: How the Mind Forgets and Remembers.’ This book summary delves into the seven memory pitfalls ranging from transience and absent-mindedness to misattribution and persistence, illustrating how our minds can sometimes betray us. Along the way, encounter engaging research, real-life examples, and the science behind our brains’ remarkable ability to store and recall information. You’ll also uncover valuable techniques and strategies to sharpen your memory and reduce the likelihood of these memory ‘sins’ impacting your day-to-day life.

The Seven Deadly Sins of Memory

Our memories are transient, and they fade over time. Memory techniques such as mnemonics can help combat this issue by linking new information to familiar concepts.

Do you ever forget people’s names or encounter embarrassing moments of not recognizing someone you met before? This problem arises due to the first sin of memory, transience. Memories are fleeting, they disappear over time without us realizing it. Studies show the extent of faultiness of our memories over time. For example, after fifteen months of O.J. Simpson’s famous acquittal in the 1995 murder trial, only 50% of students could give accurate accounts of where they were, and this number decreased to 30% three years later. The German philosopher Hermann Ebbinghaus developed the forgetting curve to show how memories fade over time. Ebbinghaus memorized a list of nonsense words and tested himself, by the end of the month, 75% of them were obliterated from his memory.

Luckily, there are ways to combat transient memory loss, such as memory techniques. The ancient Greeks developed memory tricks called mnemonics, which work by connecting new information to familiar places or numbers, making it easier to recall new concepts. A simple way to use mnemonics in everyday life is by associating new information with familiar concepts or ideas. For example, to remember the name of a well-built man named Bruce, imagine how he would “bruise” you in a scuffle. By making the image vivid, next time you see Bruce, it will be easier to remember him. Memory techniques can be incredibly useful, as they help to link new information to concepts and images that are already meaningful to you.

Battling Absent-Mindedness

Absent-mindedness and memory failure are not always linked. This is because absent-mindedness results from a lack of attention to a task, meaning incoming information is partially encoded or ignored. It doesn’t signify cognitive decline but rather that your mind is fixated on something else. Sometimes we forget things because we haven’t set appropriate cues, but at other times, we just can’t remember no matter how many cues are provided. To combat absent-mindedness, we need to be attentive to the task at hand and set up appropriate cues, such as placing medication by our toothbrush, which acts as a visual reminder.

The Science of Memory Recall

Do you struggle with remembering names and proper nouns? Researchers suggest that proper nouns typically make only a single connection in the brain, making them harder to recall than common nouns that have various synonyms. To improve your memory recall, create more associations with the information you want to remember. For instance, imagine marrying the person whose name you want to recall. Additionally, the tip of the tongue sensation is a universal human experience, with 45 out of 51 languages using this kind of description. The Korean language describes this phenomenon as a word that is “sparkling” at the end of the tongue.

The Perils of Misattribution

Misattribution is a common memory error that occurs when we attribute something we saw or heard to the wrong source. This mistake can have serious consequences in criminal cases, as evidenced by the fact that 90% of wrongful convictions overturned by DNA evidence involve mistaken eyewitness identification. Misattribution occurs when memories are not firmly linked to a specific time or place, making it easy to mix them up with other loose memories. A classic example of misattribution occurred during the Oklahoma City bombing investigation when a witness gave a detailed description of an innocent soldier, thinking he was an accomplice of the bomber. To mitigate misattribution, police lineups now show suspects one at a time, and witnesses signal a thumbs up or down for each person. However, our suggestible nature also affects our memories and can cause them to change. Understanding the dangers of misattribution can help us be more vigilant in scrutinizing our memories and avoiding costly errors.

The Power of Suggestion

We’re highly susceptible to suggestion when it comes to remembering past events, as evidenced by studies where leading
questions were used to create false memories. False testimonies obtained through this method have resulted in
unjust imprisonment for years. However, with the development of new interview procedures, these situations can be avoided.

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