The Virtue of Selfishness | Ayn Rand

Summary of: The Virtue of Selfishness: A New Concept of Egoism
By: Ayn Rand


Embark on a journey to challenge conventional beliefs with Ayn Rand’s provocative book, ‘The Virtue of Selfishness: A New Concept of Egoism.’ This summary will delve into the author’s argument that morality can be determined objectively, and that rational self-interest is the cornerstone of a moral life. Explore the implications of embracing selfishness as a positive trait, the significance of a capitalist society rooted in self-interest, and the role of government in defending our rights. Prepare yourself for an unconventional yet enlightening perspective that will transform how you perceive your principles and values in life.

Objective Morality

Morality is not just a matter of personal taste. According to the author, ethical beliefs can be grounded in hard facts. By committing to survival, humans provide a fundamental value that creates a natural ethical framework. The framework is simple: what helps us survive is good, and what threatens our existence is bad. However, reasoning is required to distinguish between good and bad options, as our instincts are not always reliable. Some decisions are objectively good while others are objectively bad.

Rational Self-Interest and Morality

The author introduces a new fundamental and objective moral principle that revolves around preserving one’s life. According to the author, being selfish is good as long as it is rational, and every human being should look out for their welfare based on the notion that they are “ends in themselves.” However, this does not mean that every desire is rational or morally good. Living morally requires shouldering a burden and using reason to seek true self-interest.

The Rationality of Selfish Morality

If you have a selfish interest in helping others, it’s moral. This is the message of the book that tells us to prioritize our own rational selfishness instead of sacrificing the welfare of those we love to help strangers. The author argues that helping our loved ones is not selfless but an expression of our personal and selfish love. While it may be good to help strangers, sacrificing our interests for their welfare is irrational and not morally virtuous.

The Rationality of Capitalism

In this book, the author argues that capitalism, founded on trade, respects the principles of self-interest and natural rights. A society of traders is characterized by pure, unregulated capitalism that motivates citizens by appealing to their rational economic self-interest. People work productively towards their goals, treating others neither as masters nor inferiors. The emergence of capitalism creates social cohesion without the need for brutal compulsion. The citizens in a capitalist society respect each other’s natural political rights and develop rational, self-interested relationships, which benefit them mutually but also contribute to the growth of society as a whole. The system is built on rational, self-interested actions and is fundamentally moral socio-economic.

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