1776 | David McCullough

Summary of: 1776: America and Britain at War
By: David McCullough

Introduction

Dive into the tumultuous year of 1776, as David McCullough brings to life the struggles and triumphs of the American Revolution. Explore the human side of the story, from the hardships faced by George Washington and his ragtag army to the resilience and determination that ultimately allowed them to prevail against the well-trained and well-equipped British forces. Engage with the strategic decisions, daring gambits, and strokes of luck that helped to shape the outcome of the conflict. This summary of ‘1776: America and Britain at War’ offers an insightful glimpse into the monumental events that led to the birth of a nation.

The Rise of King George III’s Power

King George III ruled England with his love for music, art, and architecture at the outset of the American Revolution. He remained in full power for over 15 years before the onset of his eventual madness. In 1775, he addressed Parliament and promised to quell the rebellion in America, leading to the deployment of British forces to Boston.

Washington’s Siege: The Battle for Boston

In 1775, General George Washington led only 14,000 out of 20,000 New Englanders to fight against 7,000 British troops and warships. Despite lacking a professional cartographer to map the terrain, an engineer to build defenses, and gunpowder, Washington instilled discipline and fought small skirmishes and night raids. However, disease and desertion plagued his troops, who were not trained soldiers and wore filthy rags. In contrast, the British troops kept themselves clean and largely avoided sickness. Despite these challenges, Washington maintained his public optimism and persevered through the winter.

Washington’s Rise to Leadership

Washington’s transition from a wilderness surveyor to a military commander during the French and Indian War was the beginning of his remarkable leadership. His marriage to Martha Custis enabled him to enjoy a lavish lifestyle. Upon receiving the command to lead American forces in 1775, Washington expressed doubts concerning his qualification, but his natural leadership qualities made him the perfect fit. Despite facing better-trained, disciplined, and equipped British forces, Washington’s stature, confidence, and dignity compelled his men to follow him, giving him an edge in battle. Washington’s rise to leadership continues to inspire many today.

Washington’s Wild Plan

In 1775, Washington’s army faced a shortage of arms, and Congress rejected his plans to attack the British. He supported Colonel Henry Knox’s bold plan to retrieve heavy cannon from Fort Ticonderoga and transport them to Boston. Knox successfully brought back 120,000 pounds of mortars and cannons and led the Americans in hauling them to the top of Dorchester Heights in one night. The British awoke to find themselves facing 20 cannons pointing at them. They retreated, and General William Howe ferried more than 9,000 troops to Halifax, Nova Scotia. Washington’s army celebrated the victory, which proved his strategic capabilities and led to his recognition as a hero. The triumph boosted morale and provided momentum for the upcoming battle in New York City.

Washington’s Struggle in New York

In “Washington: A Life,” the importance of New York during the Revolutionary War is highlighted. The city was both symbolically and strategically valuable, serving as the gateway to Canada and granting the British a shadow army of loyalist spies. George Washington’s 9,000 men were vastly outnumbered by the British’s 30,000, including Hessian mercenaries. Although they had a strategic advantage in Brooklyn Heights, the American forces had to build extensive fortifications to defend against the largest armada in history. Finally, the defense of New York hinged on holding the Heights.

The Battle of Brooklyn Heights

In August 1776, a superior British force of thousands of veteran troops led by Howe threatened Washington’s smaller army, who made the mistake of dividing his forces between Manhattan and Brooklyn Heights. The British landed 15,000 troops on Long Island, attacking from all sides and almost crushing the colonial army. Washington ordered 1,200 more troops from New York to Brooklyn Heights, but he soon realized his peril and evacuated his position, luckily escaping across the East River to Manhattan during a massive storm. The Battle of Brooklyn Heights could have ended differently if Howe had pressed on or the wind had turned earlier, but Washington’s decision to retreat saved the revolution. Despite criticism for splitting his forces, Washington returned to fight another day.

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