The Optimism Bias | Tali Sharot

Summary of: The Optimism Bias: A Tour of the Irrationally Positive Brain
By: Tali Sharot

Introduction

Get ready to embark on a journey that explores the power of optimism in our lives with Tali Sharot’s ‘The Optimism Bias: A Tour of the Irrationally Positive Brain’. Delve into the fascinating world of human biases and learn how our propensity towards optimism shapes our perception of reality and our decisions. Discover how our brains function to support this peculiar trait, while also learning about the benefits and pitfalls of optimistic thinking. Throughout this summary, we will examine the impact of optimism on personal and professional outcomes, and suggest ways to navigate the fine balance between excessive optimism and moderate optimism, for a more fulfilling and successful life.

Our Biased Perception

We like to believe that we are rational beings, but the truth is that our perception of reality is full of bias. One of many phenomena that shape our perception of the world is superiority bias, which causes us to rate ourselves as above average. A study by a cognitive scientist shows that we can easily justify choices we haven’t made and confidently believe that we would detect trickery that we are not actually capable of detecting. Our tendency to trust our perceptions often leads us astray, making it difficult to see the world as it truly is.

The Downside of Optimism

Most of us have an optimism bias, which causes us to look at the future optimistically rather than realistically. This bias can take on extreme forms, leading us to overestimate the likelihood of experiencing positive events and underestimate the likelihood of experiencing negative events. However, our optimism has limits, and we are only optimistic about our own future and our loved ones’. We tend to believe that we are capable of making everything turn out okay in our lives, but this can be a faulty belief, as divorce rates and other negative events can happen to anyone. The key lies in balancing optimism with a realistic assessment of potential risks and negative outcomes.

The Neuroscience of Optimism

The advent of fMRI scanners has helped unravel the mystery of how the brain works, including an understanding of the optimism bias. The amygdala and the rACC are the two areas responsible for emotions and motivation, and the more connected they are, the more the brain pays attention to positive stimuli, leading to an optimistic outlook. Depressed individuals, on the other hand, have dysfunctional interactions between these regions, leading them to imagine negative scenarios too vividly. Mildly depressed individuals lack the optimism bias and exhibit something called depressive realism, where their predictions for the future are pretty accurate but less optimistic.

The Power of Optimism

In spite of always being warned not to get our hopes high, optimistic views about our endeavors have been proven to make us more successful. First, optimistic expectations about our endeavors make us more motivated to succeed, therefore increasing the likelihood of success. Second, optimism helps us learn from our mistakes, thus increasing the probability of our being successful next time. This goes against the common belief that feeling better about the outcome of our actions is a matter of keeping our assumptions low. According to the belief, if we have low expectations, we’re less likely to be disappointed. But this is actually untrue and can even lead to similar feelings of discouragement. This summary proves that it is essential to cultivate positive expectations in any undertaking.

Don’t Delay the Dreaded

Anticipating Dreaded Events Leads to Unnecessary Suffering

We all have those tasks or events we dread, whether it’s a visit to the dentist or a looming deadline. It’s tempting to put them off and avoid the discomfort, but this only prolongs the agony. In fact, the anticipation of dreaded events can be even worse than the actual experience.

Our brains mimic the feelings we expect to encounter, so the anxiety we feel leading up to an event can be just as intense as the event itself. This is why delaying a root canal, for example, will only prolong the pain and discomfort.

Optimists have an advantage in this regard; they imagine positive events more vividly and think they are more likely to happen sooner. Pessimists, on the other hand, imagine negative events less vividly and believe they will happen later rather than sooner.

The bottom line is that we should face our fears and not delay the dreaded. By doing so, we can avoid unnecessary suffering and even find that the actual experience is not as bad as we anticipated. So the next time you have a daunting task ahead, tackle it head-on and experience the relief and satisfaction that comes with conquering your fears.

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